CRIMINAL LAW

SERVICES OFFERED WITH REGARD TO CRIMINAL LAW WHITE COLLAR CRIME

Our firm has considerable experience in handling the criminal liability of entrepreneurs or private individuals.

We characteristically mention the following cases:

Criminal liability of the Directors for the companys operations and actions;

Criminal liability resulting from actions with negative environmental impact;

Criminal liability resulting from violations of the construction laws;

Financial crimes (frauds involving credit institutions

THE GENERAL LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK GOVERNING

 

CRIMINAL LAW WHITE COLLAR CRIME IN GREECE

In Greece criminal proceedings are extremely slow.

Under the Greek criminal law, the legal entities bear no criminal liability, which is entirely borne by their legal representatives.

Therefore, companies / enterprises must be extremely careful in defining the liability of each of their executives.

 

TAX LAW

TAX LAW

Consulting on the structuring of business operations, to achieve better taxation by legitimate means;

Consulting on the settlement of tax disputes with the competent tax authorities;

Company representation before the tax authorities and the competent administrative courts.

TAX LAW IN GREECE

At the beginning of 2010, the implementation of tax measures is the main subject of political discussion and strict measures are clearly about to be implemented. New ideas and measures are suggested on a daily basis and the government has opened a public dialogue on a series of measures.

In general, the situation is currently as follows:

?1. INCOME TAXATION

Income taxation of natural persons generally escalates based on income level, with a maximum limit of 40%, whereas corporate entities are subject to fixed taxation rates, depending on their legal form, which may not exceed 25%.

In many cases specific income categories are subject to favorable taxation, with no reasonable excuse (e.g. members of the Parliament, jurists, football players etc.)!!!

?.1.1.SUPPLEMENTARY CONTRIBUTION

Law 3758/2009 imposed an extraordinary supplementary contribution on natural persons for year 2007. Such contribution was levied on any tax payers who declared an income of over 60,000 in year 2008.

This measure caused serious reaction and many tax payers addressed the administrative courts claiming anti-constitutionality, as retroactive taxation (e.g. taxation of income of previous years) is prohibited under the Greek Constitution.

In the last days the first ruling was issued by a First Instance Court whereby the supplementary contribution was declared illegal and therefore cancelled. The case is now referred to the Supreme Court. If the Supreme Court upholds the decision of the first instance court, then the State will be liable to refund the tax payers with any amounts collected, which will seriously burden the state economics, which are already seriously problematic.

?.2.INHERITANCE TAX

In 2008 (law 3634/2008) the government adopted a serious of measures to limit inheritance taxation. In particular, the following measures were adopted:

?.2.1.Full exemptionfrom the inheritance tax with regard to the acquisition of a residence up to 200 sq.m. or the acquisition of land by the deceaseds spouse or children, provided that they do not own a residence that meets their housing needs.

?.2.2.Reduction of the taxation ratesapplicable to the deceaseds next of kin.

More specifically, first-degree relatives (as defined in the law) were exempted from taxation for any assets not exceeding in value 95,000 whereas second-degree relatives were exempted up to 20,000. Any assets exceeding in value the above limits were subject to taxation of 1% over the excessive value.

?.3.PARENTAL GRANT TAXATION

Parental grant is any transfer of property from parents to children, in the form of a donation.

?.3.1.Law3634/2008introduced a restructuring of the taxation of parental grants. The tax exemption limit was again set at 95,000. Any transfer of property from parents to children exceeding that limit in value was subject to taxation of 1%.

?.3.2.The same lawprovides for full tax exemption of any parental grants consisting exclusively in the transfer of the beneficiarys primary residence. Such exemption applies to any estates not exceeding 200 sq.m.

?.3.3.Parental grants of movable propertyare subject to 10% taxation. Parental grants of holdings, shares or other movable securities are subject to independent taxation, ranging from 0.6% to 1.2%.

It should be noted that the applicable tax rates and tax exemption limits are particularly favorable compared to previous tax regulations.

As analyzed below, the government has already begun to replace the applicable tax rates with significantly higher ones.

?.4.REAL ESTATE TAXATION

?.4.1.Standard real estate tax.

Law 3634/2008 introduced standard real estate taxation, based on the value of the real estates and any real rights over them as at January 1stof the taxation year. The total value of the real estate property owned by natural persons in Greece, less the value of primary residence, is subject to a standard tax rate, subject to 0.1% graduated tax rate. The value of the real estate property owned by legal entities is subject to taxation of 0.6%. (In most cases, such value is calculated based on the values defined per district by special law).

Natural persons are exempted from tax with regard to their primary residence provided that it does not exceed two hundred (200) square meters and three hundred thousand euros (300,000) in value.

The following entities are exempted from real estate tax with regard to any real estates used privately: (a) The Greek State, the municipal authorities and state enterprises; (b) The foreign countries for any real estates they own; (c) Any real estates not included in the city plan; (d) The social security organizations and funds; (e) All established religions and communions.

It should be noted that the Real Estate Tax has replaced the Large Property tax previously applied, which was much stricter on the large property owners; therefore, it is seen as great relief for the large property owners, however, at the same time it was also imposed on small property owners, who used to be fully exempted.

?.5.EXCISE TAX

Among others, in 2009 the Greek Government adopted the following tax / collective measures:

?.5.1.A raisein the Excise Tax levied on unleaded regular gasoline and super unleaded gasoline.
?.5.2.A raise in mobile telephony charges, i.e. a raise in the charges imposed with regard to the use of mobile phones, which are collected through the telephone bills, and 12% taxation on card connections.
?.5.3.An extraordinary contributionwas imposed on the owners of leisure yachts exceeding 10 m. in length and sailing vessels exceeding 15 m.

 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW

TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW

Our firm holds a leading position in cases involving telecommunications enterprises.

Our legal services in this field include the following:

Legal support in the issue of operation permits by the Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission;

Legal support in all regulatory matters a telecommunications enterprise may be concerned with;

Client representation before the Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission;

Compliance with the regulations governing the telecommunications market;

Court representation in disputes with the subscribers or users of telecommunication services;

Court representation in disputes with citizens who sue companies claiming health damage caused by the installation of telecommunications networks;

Court representation in disputes with citizens and environmental organizations claiming environmental damages caused by the operation of telecommunications enterprises;

Legal support in the field of compliance with the applicable codes of ethics.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW IN GREECE

Any type of electronic communications activities relating to the provision of networks and/or electronic communications are subject to the General Permit requirements of L. 3431/2006 titled «Electronic Communications and other provisions» (Government Gazette13/?/3-2-2006) and to the «General Permits Regulation» (Government Gazette 748/?/21-6-2006), as amended by Decisions No.442/68/28-6-2007and513/014/3-3-2009of the Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission (Integrated text of the General Permits Regulation(Government Gazette 748/?/2006, Government Gazette 1279/?/2007, 492/?/2009).

The provision of electronic communications services by third parties who lack privately-owned infrastructures and provide services under a different trade mark or under different corporate organization, by using infrastructures of other electronic communications network or service providers, under special agreements, is subject to the General Permits regime and to an Application for Registration.

On the contrary, a General Permit is not required:

For the simple resale of electronic communications services to end users;

For the private use of terminal radio equipment based on non-exclusive use of specific radio frequencies by the users for purposes not relating to any form of financial operations, such as use of the citizen zone by radio amateurs, which does not constitute provision of Network or electronic communications services and is governed by the applicable laws regulating the terminal equipment and radio equipment.

For the state electronic communications networks, the radio communications networks and individual stations of the Radio Amateurs Service, of the Radio Amateurs Service through satellite and any networks used exclusively for experimental or research purposes and demonstration.


HTPC (Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission) is an independent Authority and the National Operator who monitors, regulates and controls:
The electronic communications market, which mainly comprises the fixed and mobile telephony enterprises and wireless communications and internet providers and

the posts market, which mainly comprises post and courier service providers. HTPC further exercises the powers of the Competition Commission in the relevant markets.


Within the scope of its duties, the Commission mainly engages in the following:

Regulates any matters relating to
1. the determination of the relevant electronic communications markets, products or services in the Greek Territory and
2. the determination and the duties of any Providers with Significant Power over the relevant markets according to the national and Community laws;

Supervises and monitors the electronic communications network and/or service providers; imposes sanctions and keeps and manages the Register of Electronic Communications Network and Service Providers;

Issues Codes of Ethics as to the provision of electronic communications networks and services;

Procures for due implementation of the laws governing electronic communications and of the provisions of L. 703/1977, as in force, and imposes the relevant sanctions;

Cooperates with the Regulatory Authorities of other member-states of the European Union or third countries, as well as with Community or international organizations, in any matters falling within its powers and duties;

Regulates any matters relating to the General Permits;

Manages the National Numbering Plan (NNP);

Regulates any matters relating to number portability, the selection and/or pre-selection of providers and monitors the implementation of the applicable provisions;

Grants the rights of use of radio frequencies and/or numbers;

Regulates any matters relating to Internet domain names ending in .gr and is competent to regulate any matters relating to domain names ending in .eu;

Regulates any matters relating to electronic signatures;

Regulates any access and interconnection matters;

Exercises powers relating to the Universal Service;

Regulates any matters pertaining to the protection of consumers in the field of electronic communications and post services;

Regulates and monitors the post services market;

Manages the commercial radio frequency spectrum, excluding radio and television frequencies. Within this context, HTPC:

Defines in which cases the use of radio frequencies is subject to permit;

Grants such permits where necessary;

Defines the royalties payable for such use;

Monitors and supervises the use of the radio frequency spectrum and imposes the applicable sanctions;

Keeps the national register of radio frequencies;

Grants permits for the construction of land antennas;

Handles any matters relating to the distribution and use of terminal telecommunications equipment and radio equipment.

 

PROMOTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL

8a Promotion of Pharmaceutical

ADVERTISING OF MEDICINAL PRODUCTS IN GREECE

INTRODUCTION

Promotion of pharmaceutical products in Greece is highly regulated. The Association of Pharmaceutical Companies in Greece ( SFEE ) is a member of EFPIA and follows its Code of Conduct. In parallel the National Organization of Pharmacies ( EOF ) issues regularly circulars which put rules for the promotion of pharmaceutical products.

The present deals with some usual topics that the pharmaceutical companies face when advertising their products and includes the relevant provisions of the Code of Deontology of SFEE.

  1. To whom is advertising of medicinal products allowed?

The advertising of medicinal products depends on the kind of the medicinal product which is advertised.

For prescription medicines the advertising is allowed only to health care professionals.

For non-prescription medicines the advertising is allowed also to the public.

  1. Which are the prerequisites of advertising prescription medicines?

For the prescription medicines, the Advertisements may only appear in professional publications, namely publications sent or delivered exclusively to health care professionals.

Generally, Advertisements are not permitted in audiovisual material or on the Internet, including online journals. However, they are allowed when the access is restricted by the use of a password to HCPs.

In every advertisement the prescribing information of the product ( SPC ) must be included. However, abbreviated advertisements are exempted from this obligation.

All information and claims must be correct, accurate, objective and unambiguous and must be based on relevant and comparable aspects of the medicinal products, as well as on an up-to-date evaluation of all the evidence, reflecting that evidence clearly. They must not be directly or indirectly misleading and they must not distort the scientific facts.

Direct or indirect promotion of misleading indications of the medicinal product, reference to outdated scientific data, putting forward inaccurate or unsubstantiated claims, misleading comparison with other medicinal products and generalization of isolated observations are prohibited.

Any information, claims or comparisons must be capable of scientific substantiation .(art. 5,6 of chapter A of Code of SFEE)

 

  1. Is the comparative advertising of medicinal products allowed?

In general, the comparison is allowed but it must be capable of scientific substantiation.

Comparative claims of superiority or non-inferiority and the like are only permitted if they are risen from the level of statistical significance in Head to Head, specially designed randomised comparative trials, published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, aimed at comparing the safety/efficacy parameters and other properties of the medicinal product (primary or secondary end points of the trial).

Hanging comparisons such as it is better, better safety profile, etc. without stating what the medicinal product is compared with are not allowed.

Along with comparisons and/or statistical data, the following must always be stated:

  1. the statistical significance level (P/P value or confidence intervals) must be stated for data that are statistically non-significant;
  2. further statistical data analysis, when such data have not been published (i.e. extrapolation of results by the company), is not allowed.

Where the clinical significance is not known, this must be stated on the same page.

All factors under comparison must be stated, accompanied by clarifications where and as necessary.

Data from patient registries must not be used as a basis for comparative claims. When such data are presented, the identity of the registry must be indicated and a clarifying notice to the following effect must be added:

The results shown here have been derived from a patient registry and not from a randomised trial involving direct comparison of therapeutic factors, therefore they do not suggest such comparison (art. 6 of chapter A of Code of SFEE)

 

  1. Is the publishing of press releases for medicinal products allowed?

There is a general prohibition regarding the publishing of any kind of information concerning unauthorized medicines (prior to the grant of marketing authorization by the National Organization of Medicines), however a press release can be published under the strict condition that it is informative and does not include any promotional references to specific unauthorized medicine.

  1. Is the provision of gifts to the health care professionals allowed?

It is permitted to offer item medical/educational devices/applications of insignificant value, up to EUR 15 (per item) VAT included, closely associated with daily HCP practice.

All the above informational and educational material for medical use is considered promotional and must therefore be notified to EOF. Such material must not use the product brand name and/or include a direct or indirect advertising message, but only the companys logo.

Any other donation, sponsorship or benefit in kind to HCPs is prohibited.

  1. Is the provision of hospitality to health care professionals allowed and if yes under which prerequisites?

Pharmaceutical companies are permitted to cover the participation costs of HCPs, including travel, registration, accommodation and meals, subject to approval from EOF and from their employers.

HCPs are entitled to participate only in conferences related to their specialty or similar specialties and of course the participation of any accompanying persons in any activity organized by a pharmaceutical company is banned.

The choice of venue must be very careful and it is not allowed to use venues that are renowned for their entertainment facilities or are extravagant (e.g. spas, resorts, casinos, etc.).

Scientific events cannot be held in touristic destinations during the respective high seasons, i.e. during the summer season (20/6 to 15/9) and during the winter season (15/12 to 15/1), and under no circumstances in skiing destinations for the period from 15/12 to 15/3.

The venue must be suitable for professional events and a conference hall for these events is complulsory. For conferences held in Greece, the accommodation of HCPs in, 5-star hotels is prohibited. It is permitted to hold a conference:

  1. in all 5-star hotels located in the capitals in the prefectures of Greece, which have a conference hall, provided they meet the cost requirement under the Code as to the daily cost of accommodation (including VAT and breakfast) and subject to the provisions of seasonality;
  2. in all 4-star hotels which fulfil the cost requirement under the Code and have a conference hall, subject to the provisions on seasonality.
  3. in exceptional cases, hotels located outside the capital of a prefecture, if they meet the needs of the conference and following the positive opinion of the Conferences Committee of SFEE.

 

Entertainment events (excursions etc.) in connection with a scientific event are not allowed.

EOF has put limits to the number of participation that a HCP can have to conferences per year however these limits do not apply for HCPs with an active role in the conference ( speaker etc. )

For air travel, economy class tickets must be offered, and business class tickets may be offered only if flights exceed 4 hours.

The cost of meals per participant should not exceed EUR 70 (excluding VAT) per day abroad and EUR 70 (including VAT) per day in Greece. The same cost of meal applies also for foreign HCPs who participate in scientific events held in Greece. Accommodation costs must not exceed EUR 250 (excluding VAT) per day in 4-star hotels abroad and EUR 140 (including VAT) in Greece. In this price (EUR 140) breakfast is included. The above mentioned meals and accommodation limits apply also for foreign HCPs who participate in scientific events held in Greece. The hospitality cost (meals and accommodation) of scientific events held abroad, should follow the limits of the hosting country of the event, on the condition that the cost of meals does not exceed 70 (excluding VAT) per day and the cost of accommodation does not exceed 250 (excluding VAT) per day in 4*star hotels.

EOF categorizes the scientific events in four categories and imposes limits to the amounts that a pharmaceutical company may give for the sponshorship of the event according to its category. (art. 19 of Chapter A of Code of SFEE)

  1. It is allowed to have a business meal with an HCP ?

It is permitted to organise business meals outside the scope of scientific events in places appropriate for the purpose of the meeting. In any case, the daily cost per meal and per person cannot exceed EUR 70, including VAT. (art. 19 of Chapter A of Code of SFEE)

 

  1. Are there in Greece disclosure obligations for the payments to HCPs?

According to the Code of SFEE each Member company shall document and disclose on their website and on the EOF website platform, within six months by the end of each calendar year at the latest, individually by name all Transfers of Value it makes, directly or indirectly, to or for the benefit of a Recipient. Except as expressly provided, transfers of value shall be disclosed on an individual basis. Each Member Company shall disclose, on an individual basis for each clearly identifiable recipient (name, surname, Tax Registration No) the amounts of transfers of value to such recipient in each Reporting Period which may be reasonably allocated to one of the following categories: 1/. Transfers of value to HCOs related to: Donations and grants, Sponsorship of events, Fees for service and consultancy, 2/ Transfers of value to HCPs related to: Events such as registration fee, travel and accommodation expenses (to the extent permitted by Article 19, Chapter A of Code of SFEE), Fees for Service and Consultancy.

Disclosures shall be made on an annual basis and each reporting period shall cover a full calendar year. Disclosures shall be made by each Member Company within 6 months after the end of the relevant Reporting Period and the information disclosed shall remain available in the public domain for a minimum of 3 years, unless the Law or the Hellenic Data Protection Authority defines a shorter or longer period after the time such information is first disclosed. Disclosures shall mandatorily be made in the Greek language.

Non-compliance with such provisions shall entail the imposition of sanctions. (Chapter B of Code of SFEE)

 

PHARMACEUTICAL LAW

PHARMACEUTICAL LAW

Our firm can provide full legal support to pharmaceutical companies or companies engaging in related objects. Our legal services in this field include the following:

Support in the issue of the required permits by the National Organization for Medicines («EOF»);

Support in obtaining price information and price lists from the Ministry of Commerce;

Compliance with the regulations and limitations governing the pharmaceutical market with regard to the commerce and promotion / advertising of medicines;

Protection of medicine patents and of the rights of pharmaceutical industries against the trade of generic medicines and vice versa;

Court representation in disputes with wholesalers with regard to the distribution of medicines and parallel trade;

Trademark and patent registration with regard to pharmaceutical products;

Support to pharmaceutical or similar enterprises in complying with the codes of ethics applied by EMEA, SFEE (Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies) and with other codes of conduct;

Setting up internal auditing procedures to identify any violations of the codes of ethics or any cases of corruption;

Drawing up co-marketing and co-promotion agreements for pharmaceutical products and interventional or non-interventional clinical research;

Crisis management support to prevent criminal or other liability

PHARMACEUTICAL LAW IN GREECE

The Greek authority competent to regulate medicine-related matters is the National Organization for Medicines (EOF), which is a Legal Entity of Public Law of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity.

EOF is assigned with the task of protecting Public Health against the circulation in Greece of:

Pharmaceutical products for use in human or veterinary medicine;

Medicated animal food and animal food additives;

Foods for particular nutritional use and food supplements;

Biocides;

Medical devices;

Cosmetics.

 

 

ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRUCTION- ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Our firm has handled numerous cases before the administrative courts. We typically mention the following:

Tax disputes;

Petitions of appeal against the State;

Disputes and petitions for annulment relating to construction matters;

Disputes and petitions for annulment relating to environmental matters;

Disputes relating to the acknowledgement of university degrees;

Disputes with the Archaeological Services.

THE GENERAL LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN GREECE

An administrative disputeis any disruption in the legal relations between the citizens and the state (or legal entities of public law) caused as a result of any action or omission on part of the state as a public authority.

Any disputes between private citizens and the state are referred to the administrative courts.

Normally, the procedure before the administrative courts is extremely long and time-consuming.

The basic law governing environmental protection in Greece is L. 1650/86, which enforces the relevant EU Directives.

The Council of the State (Supreme Administrative Court) is particularly strict on environmental matters.

Basic principles that should be applied by the Administration Authorities in performing their duties.

The Principle of Legality;

The Protection of the Public Interest;

The principle of subsidiarity of the State;

The principle of efficiency of the Administrative Actions;

The principle of continuity of the Administration Bodies;

The right of previous hearing of the Citizens prior to taking an unfavorable decision;

The principle of good faith and protection of justified trust;

The principle of proportionality;

The principle of prudent management and leniency;

The principle of equality;

The principle of necessity.

The administrative disputes are distinguished intosubstantive disputes and annulment proceedings.

In the annulment proceedings, the courts examine only the legitimacy of an administrative acts and may only cancel them. In substantive disputes the court carries out a check of appropriateness of the contested administrative act and has the power to amend it.

 

COMMERCIAL LAW

FRANCHISING-COMMERCIAL AGENTSDISTRIBUTORSCOMPETITION LAW

Our firm has handled a large number of commercial cases both in terms of consulting and litigation.

We indicatively mention the following types of services offered:

Full legal support in the establishment and organization of commercial networks of distributors and franchising networks.

Our firm provides full legal support for the development of various franchising networks with regard to fixed and mobile telephony products and services, dining and fast food products and services, garments and accessories, convenience stores, hair salon and spa chains, technical services and in many other sectors.

Our legal support includes consulting on the applicable legislation in Greece, the requirements of the Competition Commission, issue of the necessary administrative permits, execution of master agreements, submission thereof with the Ministry of Commerce, legal evaluation and control of the prospective franchisees, execution of the franchisors supporting agreements, leasing agreements and other similar fields.

Client representation before the national courts in commercial law disputes(cf. Commercial litigation section).

Client representation before the Competition Commission and the Courts with regard to violations of the law on free and fair competition, e.g. in cases relating to abuse of a dominant position, cases of parallel trade, unfair competition and trademark violations.

FRANCHISING – COMMERCIAL AGENTS DISTRIBUTORS COMPETITION LAW IN GREECE

The applicable legislation in Greece is Law 3373/2005 (as supplement to L. 703/77) on free competition, which is transfer of the respective EU directives, and L. 146/1914 on unfair competition.

The Hellenic Competition Commission (CC) is assigned with the task of ensuring smooth market operation and due implementation of fair competition. The Commission operates as an independent authority and enjoys administrative and financial autonomy.
The Competition Commission is assigned with the implementation of L. 703/77 «On the Control of Monopolies and Oligopolies and Protection of Free Competition».
In particular, the Competition Commission:

Identifies any collaborations between enterprises which are intended to or actually limit competition, in accordance with the provisions of Section 1 para. 1 of L. 703/77;

Exempts any collaborations which limit competition, yet have a positive financial effect, benefit the consumers, do not cancel out competition or bind excessively the collaborating enterprises, in accordance with the provisions of Section 1 para. 3 of L. 703/77;

Identifies any abusive behavior on part of enterprises having dominant position in the market, pursuant to Section 2 of L. 703/77;

Identifies the abuse by one or more enterprises of the financial dependency upon them of other companies being their customers or suppliers, even with regard to specific types of products or services, where the latter lack any other alternatives, in accordance with Section 2(a) of L. 703/77;

Carries out preliminary investigation on the impact that certain collaborations may have on competition, in accordance with Sections 4 4(f) of L. 703/77;

Imposes sanctions where violations of L. 703/77 are identified;

Takes security measures where a violation of Sections 1, 2, 2(a) and 5 of L. 703/77 is speculated;

Investigates, at the request of the Minister for Development or ipso jure, specific sectors of the Greek market, where it is identified that the conditions of effective competition are not met and may take, by means of a justified decision, any regulative measures required with regard to market restructuring and the creation of conditions of free competition;

Opines on any competition matters, at the request of the Minister for Development or any other competent Minister or any Chamber associations or industrial / commercial associations;

Implements the provisions of Articles 81 and 82 of the European Community Treaty;

Cooperates closely with the European Commission and the Competition Authorities of other EU member-states for due implementation of the Community competition law;

Monitors the enforcement of the decisions of the Competition Commission, the ministerial decisions and the court decisions rendered with regard to any appeals against the aforementioned decisions.

With regard to certain sectors, such as the telecommunications sector, the above powers and duties are assigned to other authorities, such as the Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission.

COMMERCIAL AGENCY AND DISTRIBUTION CONTRACTS

These contracts are governed by P.D. 219/1991.

The law provides for clientele indemnification in case of contract termination.

FRANCHISE AGREEMENTS

According to certain court decisions, these agreements are also governed by the law regulating commercial agency contracts.